Most people have seen The Matrix, the Keanu Reeves movie, and most people who have seen The Matrix will remember the famous moment where the film's protagonist, Neo, mutters "déjà vu" before all hell breaks loose.
In case you don't remember this or you haven't seen the movie, here is a brief summary: Neo, Trinity (the film's female lead) et al are returning from a mission inside the Matrix (a simulated reality which most humans perceive to be "real life"), when Neo notices a black cat sitting in the stairwell. The cat flickers a little, then Neo sees the same cat again. This glitch is quickly mistaken by Neo for déjà vu, as he famously proclaims, but luckily Trinity hears what he says and jumps into action to prevent the incoming threat to the team. In the movie, these instances of "déjà vu" are actually someone changing the code in the Matrix, which most likely indicates that a threat is coming. It is a pretty amazing concept and very relevant to this paper.
Essentially, a moment which someone mistakes for a small and insignificant event could actually be something much more and require action to prevent damage. Using this concept, we are going to discuss how a small event, or "a glitch", could be more than you think when it comes to cyber security. Breaches can be broken down into two major phases: infiltration and lateral movement.